Platonic Fullerene Chemistry and Humanoid Evolution

This article is about supporting those many people who intuitively believe that there is an evolutionary change in human consciousness, one that is taking place for the betterment of the global human condition. Without that intuition, the future of humanity would remain bleak. It is now possible to use the new science of quantum biology to describe how to measure the desired evolutionary transition into a more ennobling future. The good news is, recent discoveries are linking the process of survival to the intuitive functioning of the brain. The New Measurement of Humanity Project at the University of Florence is working at the cutting edge of this cerebral transition from the mechanistic age, into a more desirable future for humanity. The project is aware that the functioning of the mirror neuron, responsible for the evolution of compassion, plays a leading role in the transition toward a more enlightened humanity.

When Marcillio Ficino used Platonic Theology to create the 15th Century Great Italian Renaissance, as the rebirth of the lost Greek science for ethical ends, the compassion associated with the atomic structure of Platonic love, failed to influence 20th Century science. Leonardo da Vinci instead, helped to bring in the industrial mechanical age, which lacked any rigorous ethical scientific input.

The European Romantic Platonic schools tried, in vain, to prevent, what William Blake referred to as the dark satanic mills, from despoiling the green face of the planet. Fired by an insatiable greed lust for power, the economic policies of the British East India Company, in the mid 19th Century, threw compassion aside when forcing the Chinese Government to accept vast mountains of opium in return for supplying Britain with Spanish silver bullion.

Although attempts have been made to make amends for that criminal economic mind set, nobody can rely on the present global economic rationalism to help transform humanity into its intuitive Golden Age. Unless the molecular functioning of compassion, revealed though nano-technology’s association with quantum biology, becomes part of a global culture, then humanity faces extinction. As Buckminster Fuller reasoned, when he used Plato’s mathematics to describe his balanced infinite synergistic universe, it is now a choice between Utopia or Oblivion

If we re-examine Charles Darwin’s theories of evolution, the solution becomes part of the Florentine New Measurement of Humanity Project. Darwin based his published theory of evolution from observations made after his voyage on HMS Beagle, under the auspices of the East India Company. In Darwin’s ‘Origin of Species’, he credits the doctrine of Thomas Malthus’s economic policy for the East India Company (Darwin 1859). That policy was based specifically on what quantum biology reveals to be an incorrect understanding of the second law of thermodynamics, a line of thinking later inherited by Albert Einstein when he derived his theory of relativity.

In his second book ‘The Descent of Man – Selection in Relation to Sex’, Darwin wrote that compassion is so ingrained into human consciousness that it must surely play an important role in the evolution of humanity. Here, he is referring to the geometrical structure and biological functioning of Platonic love that Marcillio Ficino wrote about, in his efforts to bring about a rebirth of the lost Platonic ethical science. In conclusion, the Florentine New Measurement of Humanity Project, can be seen to be elaborating on Plato’s spiritual optical functioning, in which the mirror neuron, in association with the molecule of emotion, evolves compassion. This is done by employing an infinite fractal logic, which is in complete defiance to the functioning of the second law of thermodynamics, now governing global economic rationalism.

The existing heart felt intuitions for a change in human consciousness can be considered to be the forerunner of a new human survival science. The work of the Science-Art Research Centre of Australia, in liaison with the Florentine 21st Century Renaissance, is to help construct the super computer program needed to become a champion in the playing of Fuller’s World Game of Global Co-operation, by including into its data banks, the Platonic Fullerene Chemistry data, now outlawed by our economic obsession with an unethical understanding of the second law of thermodynamics.

© Professor Robert Pope,

Advisor to the President Oceania and Australasia of the Institute for Theoretical Physics and Advanced Mathematics (IFM) Einstein-Galilei

Concerning Cancer and Plato’s Science of Human Survival

Scientists are telling us that we must stop polluting the oceans with rubbish or face catastrophic consequences. Over two thousand years ago Plato, using geometrical logic, was well ahead of that problem. He replaced fanatical aggressive religious emotion with an evolving ethical emotive mathematics belonging to his axiom that “All is Geometry”. His educational system was specifically designed to gain spiritual scientific access to infinity rather that getting any illusory deity’s permission to do so.

Plato’s atomic ‘Science for Ethical Ends’ was outlined in his ‘The Republic’ to guide an ennobling system of government for the health of the universe. That concept was far greater than stopping the pollution of the oceans. Its specific objective was, that by becoming an integral emotional part of universal wellbeing, civilization would not become extinct. Plato was advocating a medical solution to the problem of tribal compulsion to evolve by developing weaponry. His life’s work is now considered to be the crucial basis for the ethical workings of an infinite living holographic universe.

Plato’s mathematical logic about infinity did not need permission to understand its nature by being subservient to warring gods. He constructed a spiritually ethical scientific map in order to gain understanding about the nature of infinity, to replace the compulsion driving tribes to kill each other. However, Plato’s human survival science’s mathematical logic could not possibly become functional until the biological necessity for tribal science to wage wars of survival became an observable form of a mental cancerous disorder.

When DNA revealed that humans belong to a single species harming itself, tribal science was diagnosed as a form of cancer in 1972. The founding father of the American National Cancer Research Foundation the Nobel Laureate in Medicine, Szent-Gyorgyi, referred to this cancer as being inherited from our Neolithic ancestors.

Many cancer researchers now argue that cancer, being unique to biological systems, is an essential part of the evolution of tribal science but not necessarily part of the evolution of species. Tribal science is associated with the sexual compulsion to destroy life in obedience to the ‘kill or be killed’ survival of the fittest paradigm observed in nature. Male dominance to impregnate females desiring offspring best suited to protect the tribe from other predators led to the evolution of human intellect through the development of weaponry.

The transformation of tribal science to one that will work for all members of the human species is now a medical problem requiring antidote information. Such information is readily available but has been incorrectly classified by tribal medical science as belonging to obsolete junk DNA. This vital non-junk information can be found in human survival communication and information devices recently discovered throughout the entire length of DNA itself.

Plato’s research was destined to become the basis of an atomic science belonging to the workings of a holographic universe. It warned of a far greater threat to civilization than throwing physical rubbish into the sea. Plato referred to a destructive ‘evil’ belonging to the properties of unformed matter within the physical atom. His research led to a human survival map to follow so that civilization could avoid extinction from developing a science leading to the emergence of this nuclear destruction from within the atom.

Plato used the effects of the magnetic properties of lodestone upon human emotional thought, to construct his spiritual human electromagnetic survival compass. He argued that illusory artistic, aesthetical, pleasurable excitement spread the seeds of tribal conflict and required a spiritual ethical wisdom as an antidote to such demonizing of primitive, tribal, artistic emotion. He very clearly pointed out the electromagnetic direction associated with future human survival. It started with the chaos of unformed matter within the dark abyss moving forward to create light and matter.

The European Space Agency’s Planck Observatory, which mapped the existence of the oldest light in the universe, revealed that it was asymmetrical in nature. Therefore, Plato’s electromagnetic human survival direction was one that started from nuclear chaos and moved toward the creation of asymmetrical light. In 1957 the New York Library of Science published the book “Babylonian Mythology and Modern Science”, stating that Einstein derived his theory of relativity from the mythological, mathematical intuitions belonging to Babylonian culture.

Einstein’s quantum mechanistic tribal worldview required physical reality to belong to a state of symmetrical balance. His observer participant theories associated with the nature of symmetrical light instead of asymmetrical light simply headed backwards from human survival to the chaos of unformed matter.

Einstein, being locked into Babylonian tribal science had every right to perceive certain aspects of Babylonian mathematics as belonging to great genius. However, Babylonian understanding of the nature of infinity was governed by warring gods and goddesses that forbade any mathematical access to infinity. This fear of infinity is made clear written on baked clay Babylonian tablets recording the mythological conflict that followed when one of the gods bestowed immortality to a keeper on the Ark during the Great Flood. Another tablet exists showing mathematical deceit was purposely embedded into the Babylonian legal system to enslave the populace to a warlike sexual violence. That legality became embedded into the functioning of global tribal science.

The Sumerian culture measured time as a seven day week with days of twenty four hours and each hour of sixty minute duration, together with direction being measured from a circle containing three hundred sixty degrees. These mathematical concepts were destined to one day become an integral aspect of deep space exploration.

The Babylonian culture developed the more ancient astrological Sumerian mathematics in order to predict eclipses. A clay tablet written by a Babylonian priest to the King exists. It advises him of the forthcoming 673BC Lunar eclipse, which the gods demanded was to be used to terrorize the populace. The people were thereby to be animated into a sexual frenzy to wage war through the worship of their goddess of prostitution and war, Ishtar. This was required by ‘the gods’ in order to expand the boundaries of the Kingdom.

Einstein’s tribal science logic led toward the chaos associated with unformed matter within the dark abyss. His quantum mechanics and every other aspect of his tribal sciences were governed by the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that inevitably all energy becomes unavailable to support life as chaos steadily increases, causing all life in the universe to become extinct. Einstein could never have known that during the 21st Century quantum biology cancer researchers would discover that healthy living information flowed in the opposite direction to the energies of chaos.

As the cancer researcher Szent-Gyorgyi has insisted, healthy living information entangled itself with the energies of chaos in order to evolve universal consciousness. He wrote that the cause of cancer was an incorrect understanding associated with the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

The mathematician Georg Cantor has been acclaimed to be the greatest mathematician in history as well as the most despised one. He agreed with Szent-Gyorgyi’s observation that modern science’s understanding of the Second Law of Thermodynamics carried a mental carcinogenic disorder. He classified this disorder as “a myopic fear of infinity inhabiting the modern scientific mind”. His ‘pagan’ heresy attacked the salaried security of every scientist employed by Christian University scientific research departments throughout the Western educational system. Cantor was driven to his deathbed because these influential Christian scientists created incorrect mathematical theorems ridiculing his now accepted mathematical description of infinite reality.

Isaac Newton believed that Plato’s evolving, infinite universe was scientifically authentic. In his published 28th Query Discussions he wrote that the first cause of gravitational force was certainly not created by the mass of objects in space but by a spiritual force in accordance with ancient Greek science. Although accused of being insane for this criminal heresy his earlier writings that the church had been theologically incorrect suggests that he was well aware of what he had written. His nervous breakdown may well have been brought about by the threat of being burnt alive for publishing that heresy.

We do know for certain that the Christian Church incorrectly promoted the false claim that Leonardo da Vinci was a genius master of the Great Italian Renaissance. The teaching of Plato’s human survival atomic educational system, banished by the Emperor Justinian in the 6th Century, had moved to Toledo in Spain to later become the basis of Islam’s Scientific Golden Age. Sultan Memhed II later provided the Medici Scholars in Italy with the relevant scholarly manuscripts belonging to Plato’s Academy, to be reinstated in Florence during the 15th Century.

Plato’s education system of an ennobling political science to nullify the threat of unformed matter bringing about nuclear destruction was explicit. It consisted of arithmetic, plane geometry, solid geometry, astronomy, and harmonics. Once these were mastered then the student could proceed to philosophical research. Plato argued that plane geometry must not be studied for its practical uses but for training the mind in spiritual mathematics. He let arithmetic become the first of the subjects of education, after which research into its relevant science was to become the student’s concern associated with a future ethical, atomic science.

Leonardo da Vinci, as the Chief Military Engineer of the Pope’s Army was employed by a Christian tribal cult engaged upon waging wars of conquest on behalf of its religious faith. He wrote a statement that completely divorced his tribal scientific genius from Plato’s human survival concept of ethical science. From his published Notebooks, Leonardo had written “The first object of the painter is to make a flat plane appear as a body in relief and projecting from that plane… “, he incorrectly claimed that the flat plane of a painting surface could never contain a true 3D image.

During the 20th Century the artist Salvador Dali, familiar with Plato’s scientific worldview was convinced that paintings could contain important invisible, stereoscopic 3D images. His famous 3D art exhibition, now on show at the Dali Stereoscopic Museum in Spain proved indisputably that Leonardo was not correct in arguing otherwise. Although it suited the purpose of the Church to claim that he was a master of the Renaissance, this was certainly not the case.

Australian Science-Art researchers in partnership with the Australian Sustainability Research Institute, Italian quantum biological cancer researchers and Quantum Art International presented this crucial human survival information to the public, along with paintings presenting far clearer 3D images than Dali had pioneered. By viewing the paintings through 3D, asymmetrical, electromagnetic, stereoscopic glasses much clearer interlocking planes became visible without the technical equipment used to pioneer Dali’s evolving medical phenomenon. Leonardo da Vinci had no understanding whatsoever that the flat plane of a painting’s surface could contain the spiritual human survival information that Plato had predicted.

During 2016 such human survival theory, along with the visual evidence, was presented to the International Contemporary Art Competition held under the auspices of the World Fund for Arts in Moscow during the Russian Art Week. After being awarded a First Prize that organization instigated a relevant Science-Art Research Project in 2017, in association with the Quantum Art Group International Movement and leading Italian quantum biology cancer researchers. 

Many prominent scientists during the 20th Century claimed that Plato’s research laid the foundations for modifying the prevailing mechanistic worldview in order to understand the working of a holographic universe. The Journal of Neurophysiology, established in 1938, publishes articles on the function of the nervous system. During the 21st Century it published about experimental, holographic evidence that is relevant to Szent-Gyorgyi’s cancer research. That evidence was about living 3D optical information interacting with Einstein’s extinction processes to evolve universal consciousness. This line of research opened new avenues for mapping holographic activity, within the brain, associated with the importance of evolutionary theory for understanding cancer.

One paper in particular, entitled ‘Human Cortical Activity Correlates with Stereoscopic Depth Perception’ is important. The paper provides indisputable evidence that neuron activity within the outer layer of the evolving brain’s cerebrum responded to stereoscopic magnetic stimulation by exhibiting two symmetrical geometrical planes of 3D information, interlocking to bring about a state of asymmetrical information, demonstrating the existence of psychophysical reasoning beyond the parameters of prevailing tribal scientific logic. Leonardo’s conviction that plane geometry could not contain true 3D imagery has been shown to be false by electromagnetic medical cancer research as well as by paintings proving he was not part of Plato’s futuristic educational system.

Immanuel Kant, the founding father the electromagnetic ‘Golden Age of Danish Science’, agreed that Plato’s concern that demonized aesthetical, artistic pleasure needed to be balanced by a spiritual, artistic wisdom. He wrote that this wisdom was in fact an asymmetrical electromagnetic, spiritual field evolving within the creative, artistic mind.

This transition of dysfunctional tribal information to fragments of 3D human survival science comprehension, must obviously be creating a serious global medical problem. Epidemiologists appointed by governments to be responsible for such epidemics have classified the 3D dysfunctional information as a global epidemic transmitted by the mass production of dysfunctional communication and information devices. Being subservient to tribal science dictates that they have no antidote for the social damage it is causing. However, the nature of the antidote has been discovered by developing Szent-Gyorgyi’s cancer research, in which the energies of destructive chaos entangle with healthy information to evolve universal consciousness.

A high resolution picture exists of the geometrical shape that the human cell adopts prior to forming its divisional process to create replica cells. It is obviously an infinite fractal expression undergoing an electromagnetic function associated with the dividing process. Epidemiologists looking for an antidote to the global 3D disinformation epidemic realized that Cantor’s infinite mathematics must somehow be involved. They referred to the dividing process as one obeying some form of Cantorian ‘sensibility’. David Hilbert is acknowledged as one of the most influential mathematicians of the 19th and 20th Centuries. He was one of the few scientists who agreed that Cantor’s mathematics was a bridge to the understanding of the nature of infinity.

Hilbert and Einstein worked together on the differences between symmetrical physical reality and electromagnetic biological reality. The main difference was that mechanistic, symmetrical, electromagnetic fields rotate in the opposite direction to living asymmetrical fields. Kant had identified the latter as belonging to Plato’s search for an ethical, spiritual, electromagnetic field evolving within the creative, artistic mind.

Einstein, along with the epidemiologists were locked into a physical, symmetrical world-view. As a consequence Einstein lost interest in Hilbert’s research. Einstein’s view of the physical structure of quantum mechanics embraced a symmetrical concept of reality. He was unable to associate this reality being entangled with Kant and Hilbert’s spiritual, asymmetrical, electromagnetic field belonging to the evolution of healthy artistic wisdom, associated with infinite consciousness.

From the high resolution picture of healthy cell division it became obvious that when poised to divide, the cell generated an electromagnetic field that simply prevented the dysfunctional information from being transmitted to its replica cell. The transfer of the carcinogenic information at a later stage of cellular development is a medical problem requiring antidote information encoded into what, as previously mentioned, has been incorrectly classified as junk DNA.

Both tribal science and human survival antidote science are part of human evolution, so they can be entangled together within a computer program in order to generate a balanced medical human survival diagnosis. All that is required is for the program to be controlled by relevant indisputable human survival scientific instructions to obtain the human survival blueprint.

A relevant computer medical diagnosis can be programmed to emulate the effects of dopamine, a compound in the body controlling human emotions causing compulsive behaviour. At junctions within the nervous system dopamine can build up to create overpowering electromagnetic cravings, constantly governing various aspects of a dysfunctional personality. A simple low powered medical device exists, which can emit a signal that allows the mind to free itself from the overpowering emotional ‘lust’ compulsion, bringing about the capacity to rationalize over self harming rather that a compulsion to inflict harm upon others.

A quote from George Bernard Shaw “Two percent of the people think; three percent of the people think they think; and ninety-five percent of the people would rather die than think.” can be considered to be relevant regarding the fact that so called geniuses, who think they can think, are actually being governed by the emotive tribal genius of very few people.

The shrewd, intuitive, emotional ingenuity of world leaders is extremely valuable. If a computer medical analysis providing the balancing antidote to unscrupulous Plutocratic tribal desires is obtained, then it would also include information giving them access to ethical wealth and power far beyond their tribal mindset’s ability to imagine. It is up to the three percent of the people who think they think, to provide rock solid evidence supporting human survival within the working of a holographic universe in order to bring Plato’s Science for Ethical Ends into existence. Once that is done then world leaders can begin to entertain dialogue concerning an ethical antidote ethos, now that science has come to understand the workings of the holographic universe that we inhabit. They can modify Rene Descates’ tribal axiom “I think, therefore I am” to read “We feel and think, therefore we are”.

Bertrand Russell, known for his emotional allegiance to Babylonian mathematical culture, in 1903 wrote his most famous essay entitled ‘A Free Man’s Worship’ advocating that civilization must worship the Second Law of Thermodynamics that Einstein insisted must govern all of the sciences.

The Russell-Einstein Manifesto proclaimed on the 9th of July, 1955, was about the dangers of nuclear weapons development and called for world leaders to seek peaceful resolutions to international conflict. This famous manifesto was not worth the paper it was written on, as the prevailing North Korean nuclear crisis demonstrates. Plato’s science intended to prevent nuclear destruction caused by the emergence of unformed matter from within the atom, now warrants a crucial investigation concerning the upgrading of tribal science into a science capable of generating the human survival blueprint.

The Australian 2017 Nobel Peace Prize Group, working with the United Nations Security Council regarding the need to nullify the threat of Nuclear weapon proliferation, surely warrants input from scientists who understand the basic functioning of the holographic universe. By collaborating with world leaders about implementing Plato’s Science for Ethical Ends as a medical antidote to avoid nuclear destruction, scientists can be seen as honourung the greatest responsibility associated with their scientific professions.

Science And Nature For Kids

Why is the grass green? Why is the sky blue? Why is the tree bigger than the other? Why do I feel hungry? These are a few of the hundred questions a child asks his parents day in and day out.

But by condemning children for their incessant questions, you stub out their inquisitiveness that leads to growth of knowledge. Teaching science and nature to kids is a great way to help them explore the world. A world that is far different than what they live in. You may think they get enough of science from their school textbooks. But that is far little than what a malleable kid’s mind can devour.

You do not have to set up a lab or invest heavily in instruments. The world is an open laboratory and the best way to teach your child is to take him out into the world. Stare at the moon and see it change shapes through the month. Makes notes of the same on the calendar and then predict its shape for the coming week.

See flowers bloom and question why flowers droop and wither, See animal and plant behaviour, see fish move swiftly and check how they sleep, how does the washing machine work, how does the fruit mixer grind fruits? What is the material in a sofa or a bed, why is it used?

Science is everywhere, it can be learnt and observed and fed into your child’s mind, leaving them asking more questions than ever before. You don’t have to be a scientist or an engineer to know all the answers but a positive approach towards science is all that you need.

Keep your mind and ears open and teach your children the same. Fuel them to ask questions, relevant questions not just mindless questions. Put science books under their noses and sit and watch discovery and national geographic together with your kids.

Hold mini competitions in your house with questions in regard to general knowledge of science and nature. This will encourage your children to dig into books and learn the nuances of everyday science. Being in-step with science will help your child be updated and walk tall in life.

How do you get a cold? What is the cure to it? How can you avoid getting a cold? Are a few questions you can get your child to ask and answer? Do not spoon feed them, let the mind explore. It helps build logic to form an answer. In this way children can decode science and make sense of the world.

When your children are exposed to the world or in conversation with older people they can be a part of it with their wealth of information which only you can induce them to swallow. Sometimes children get so engrossed in science and nature that they get far ahead in life and take up professions in relation to this field. But it all begins when the tender mind is hungry for knowledge.

Biology Experiments for Teachers – Enzymes: Catalase

Safety. Although the hazards in the following experiments are negligible, you are advised to consult the latest edition of ‘Safeguards in the School Laboratory’ published by The Association for Science Education ( before embarking on any experiment.

Outline. Catalase is an enzyme which occurs in the cells of many living organisms. Certain of the energy-releasing reactions in the cell produce hydrogen peroxide as an end-product. This compound, which is toxic to the cell, is split to water and oxygen by the action of catalase. 2H2O2 = 2H2O + O2

Samples of liver and yeast are dropped into hydrogen peroxide. Oxygen is evolved and the student is asked to extend the experiment to try and decide if an enzyme in the tissues is responsible. The experiments and the questions take about one hour.

Prior knowledge. The existence of inorganic catalysts; enzymes denatured on boiling; oxygen relights a glowing splint.

Advance preparation and materials – per group

20 volume hydrogen peroxide 50 cm3


liver, about 1 cm cube

distilled water 20 cm3

dried yeast about 1 g

clean sand about 1 g

activated charcoal granules, about 1 g

Apparatus – per group

test-tube rack and 4 test-tubes

forceps or seeker for pushing liver into test-tube

4 labels or spirit marker

filter funnel

Bunsen burner

filter paper

test-tube holder

mortar and pestle


The investigation below is a fairly critical examination of plant and animal tissues to see if

they contain catalase.

(a) Label three test-tubes 1-3.

(b) Pour about 20 mm (depth) hydrogen peroxide into each tube.

(c) Cut the liver into 3 pieces.

(d) To tube 1 add a small piece of liver, and to tube 2 add a pinch of dried yeast.

(e) Insert a glowing splint into tubes 1 and 2, bringing it close to the liquid surface or into the upper part of the froth.

1 Describe what you saw happening and the effect on the glowing splint.

2 How do you interpret these observations?

3 Is there any evidence from this experiment so far, to indicate whether the gas is coming from the hydrogen peroxide or from the solid?

4 Is there any evidence at this stage that an enzyme is involved in the production of gas in this reaction?

(f) In tube 3 place a few granules of charcoal and observe the reaction.

5 Could charcoal be an enzyme? Explain your answer.

6 Assuming (i) that the gas in (f) is the same as before and (ii) that the charcoal is almost pure carbon, does the result with charcoal help you to decide on the source of the gas in this and the previous experiments?

(g) Suppose the hypothesis is advanced that there is an enzyme in the liver and yeast, which decomposes hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water; design and carry out a control experiment to test this hypothesis.

7 Record (i) the experiment, (ii) the reasons which led you to conduct it, (iii) the observed

results and (iv) your conclusions.

(h) Wash out the test-tubes. Design and carry out an experiment to see if the supposed enzyme in the plant and animal material can be extracted and still retain its properties. The experiment should include a control.

8 Describe briefly your procedure, your results and your conclusions.

9 Assuming that liver and yeast each contain an enzyme which splits hydrogen peroxide, is there any evidence to show that it is the same enzyme? What would have to be done to find this out for certain?

Discussion – answers

1 Effervescence should be observed in each case but it is more vigorous with yeast than with liver. The glowing splint should relight.

2 Oxygen is being produced.

3 There is no evidence to indicate whether the liquid or solid is giving the gas. If the students think that a solid is unlikely to give off a gas they could be reminded of marble and hydrochloric acid in which it is the solid producing the carbon dioxide. It seems less likely, however, that yeast and liver would both give off oxygen when treated with hydrogen peroxide, than that hydrogen peroxide should give oxygen when treated with diverse substances.

4 So far, there is no evidence of an enzyme being involved.

5 A gas will come off but not sufficiently rapidly to relight a glowing splint. Charcoal could not

be an enzyme because (a) it is an element and (b) it has been produced by very high temperatures that would destroy enzymes.

6 Charcoal, as an element, could not be giving off oxygen. The gas must be coming from the

hydrogen peroxide.

7 (i) The experiment should involve boiling the tissues and then putting them into hydrogen peroxide.

(ii) If an enzyme is involved,

(iii) no gas will be produced.

8 The student should grind the samples with a little sand and distilled water, filter and test the filtrate with hydrogen peroxide. Oxygen will be evolved with a vigour proportional to that witnessed when the original substances were tested.

The student should boil half of each extract and show that it loses its activity.

9 There seems no fundamental reason why yeast and liver should not have different enzymes which catalyse the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. To be certain on this point, the enzymes would have to be extracted and their chemical composition determined.